It not for you are I to choose

It’s not for us to choose

When the DNA results are not what was expected… The question came in again this past week, as it has so many times in recent years. A genealogist had asked others in the family to test to further the genealogist’s own research. When the results came in, well, they…

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Understanding DNA results is very important to understanding who you are, your origins, and how you came to be. The results below do not tell the whole story but is the beginning.  H1b1 or H1b1A is not the complete picture. There are more numbers trailing these numbers and letter.

H1 & H3

Haplogroup H1 is by far the most common subclade in Europe, representing approximately than half of the H lineages in Western Europe. Roostalu et al. (2006) estimate that H1 arose around 22,500 years ago. H1 is divided in 65 basal subclades. The largest, H1c, has over 20 more basal subclades of its own, most with deeper ramifications. H1 is found throughout Europe, North Africa, the Levant, Anatolia, the Caucasus, and as far as Central Asia and Siberia. The highest frequencies of H1 are observed in the Iberian peninsula, south-west France, and Sardinia. H3 has a very similar distribution to H1, but more confined to Europe and the Maghreb, and is generally two to three times less common than H1.

Distribution of mtDNA haplogroups H1 & H3 in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. African is the home of humanoids. 

Distribution of mtDNA haplogroups H1 + H3 in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Conversation posted today that s worth placing this blog.
Anne Hart

Does anyone know where the origin of my MtDNA is found: H1b1-T16362C according to FamilyTreeDNA, but H1b1A, according to Genographic Project of 2013. Which would be the correct haplogroup, Family Tree or Genographic Project? How old is this mtDNA type? And in what country or geographic region is this my mtDNA found in the highest numbers? Thanks for any info.

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John Storch replied1 Reply

Anne Hart Thanks. What are the website links to these sites?




Holly Connell replied1 Reply
Per Söderlund What mtDNA test did you take at FTDNA?



Anne Hart I took whatever they had at FTDNA in 2010. My grandson took the 23 and me test and he has inherited my mtDNA from his mom, my daughter.



Per Söderlund replied1 Reply
Per Söderlund I have looked at Ian Logans page and can see that H1b1-T16362C is a out bracke of the old H1b1 and H!b1a is a other. I have not checked this but due to that H1b1-T16362C is a new name it is probebly the new brackout form the haplogroup.
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GenBank by Haplogroup



Duke B Montgomery H1b1-T16362C: your haplogroup is H1b1 and the mutation is T16362C. This commonly found in Romania I think. There are a lot of DNA relatives with the same mutation. There should be more numbers associated with H1b1_ _ _ _ to further describe your origins.



User Comment June 9, 2018

Sandra Bailey via 

Jun 9, 2018, 6:21 PM

to me


Name: Sandra Bailey

Email: slbailey16


Comment: Recently received my ancestry DNA results, and now I’m totally hooked! On one of Henry Louis Gates programs, recently, he used the results from mtDNA to locate exactly where, Oprah, Chris Tucker and a few others originated. I would love to find that part of my DNA, which would clarify where the European percentages came from. When my brother finally gets his ancestryDNA done, will our mtDNA be evident, or should I get that test done separately. Which test would you recommend if that is the case?
I am also very, very interested in beginning the courses toward becoming a geneologist. What steps do you recommend?
Thanks for your help.
Sandra Bailey

Time: June 10, 2018 at 1:21 am
IP Address:
Contact Form URL:
Sent by an unverified visitor to your site.

Hi, thank you for your interest in Genealogy. There are several resources that you may review to become a genealogist.

Brigham Young University
Boston University
The National Genealogical Society (
Board of Certification of Genealogist
Association of Professional Genealogist (
Most of the genealogist online today and blogging are not certified but have done the body of work to be acknowledged as a genealogist.
There are courses with, 23andMe, Family Search Center in Salt Lake City, UT, Legacy, Inc., and
Best Wishes


Benjamin Montgomery

Book Discussion Group: “Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome”

Book Discussion Group:
“Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome”The spring 2018 book discussion group is reading Dr. Joy DeGruy’s 2005 book, “Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome: America’s Legacy of Enduring Injury & Healing.”Saturday, June 16 | 10 a.m. – 12 p.m. 
Tanner Community Development Corporation, 2nd floor
700 E. Jefferson St. | Phoenix, AZ 85034
The June session will focus on black male/female relationships as an essential component in the healing and change process as the village is created.
Free | Open to the public | Ages 18 years + | You don’t have to read the chapter in advance to attend 

Native American’s are apart of our history

Donna Koch

Multi-Ethnic Virginia and Carolina History posted June 9


I was researching somewhere else and this is a partial response I received. Is this true? ” Native Americans no matter what Tribe they belong to would not be on a US Census until after 1924 when they were allowed to be US citizens. Each Tribe listed their own on their own Rolls. Cherokee have all listed back to 1817.”

Did people not lie to census takers or the census takers made his own determination?
What am I not understanding?

Thanks for educating me.

Response: Native Americans were treated in some cases worst than Africans in America.  They were not allowed to vote or be educated until the 1900’s around 1922-1924. The Indian rolls (Dawnes Rolls) were created to register every Native American and can be found in the National Archives.  Some Native Americans passed as white and therefore did not register.  Most of those groups can be found in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina insignificant groups. There are ofter states with this population. Seminole Nation ancestors went to Mexico along with Africans to avoid being sent to Oklahoma. Only a few came back after the Indians wars. They still can be found in Mexico today. You can find a large number of Native Americans now living in Canada who crossed over from Connecticut and New York.

Some reference for your research journey.

  • American Indians Census Rolls 1885-1940
  • Census records for Eastern Cherokee (Force march from SC to OK)
  • Chippewa
  • Pueblo
  • Seminole
  • 1857 Shawnee Census – Kansas Territory
  • Yakima, Tulalip, and  Swinomish – Washington Territory

There is a Native American Ancestry group on Facebook for further treatment of the subject. This is a valid conversation to have and to discuss.

1880 Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Schedules

Genealogy resource rarely used in ancestry research

1880 Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Schedules

The 1880 census is the mother lode of questions pertaining to physical condition, criminal status, and poverty. In addition to the basic questions on the population schedule, additional questions were posed in the ‘Supplemental Schedules for the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes’, commonly called the Defective Schedule or DDD Schedule.

When a person was noted as blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, insane, ‘maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled’, or was enumerated in a prison, orphanage, or poorhouse, further information was to be gathered on one of seven special schedules:

  • Insane
  • Idiots [defined as those ‘whose mental faculties was arrested in infancy or childhood before coming to maturity’]
  • Deaf-Mutes
  • Blind
  • Homeless Children (in Institutions)
  • Inhabitants in Prison
  • Pauper and Indigent Inhabitants (in Institutions)


These special schedules are arranged in the same order as the population schedule. When you find someone on the 1880 census who is noted as insane, etc., make note of the enumeration district, page number, and line which that person appears. The special schedules should exist for each enumeration district; this information is listed at the top of each special schedule. Each person is listed in the order he or she appears on the population schedule; the page and line numbers are given before each person’s name.

The Figure below shows Eliza Derickson enumerated in the 1880 census in the County Alms House, Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware (enumeration district 20, page 21, line 2). We can see that she is ‘maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled’. With the enumeration district, page and line numbers, we can go to the correct special schedule

Figure: Eliza Derickson enumerated in the 1880 Census


Defective Schedule

The Insane and Idiots schedules are similar in many regards. Both ask the age at onset. The Insane schedule asks for ‘Form of Disease’ [defined as mania, melancholia, paresis (general paralysis), dementia, epilepsy, or dipsomania.] The Idiots schedule asks for the supposed cause. The instructions to the enumerators give as examples, ‘scarlet fever, measles, meningitis and etc. Blow on head, fall, and etc. Fright, and etc. Both schedules ask for the names of any institutions the person had been in, the length of stay, and year discharged.

With many records of mental hospitals and asylums closed to the public, the Insane and Idiots schedules may be a researcher’s only record with medical information of those who were institutionalized. It must be remembered, however, that it is unknown who gave the information, especially if the person was not in an institution at the time of the census (when the enumerator was likely getting information from the institution records.)

Figure: Insane Schedule, District 36, Kent County, Delaware

Insane Schedule5V.jpg

Figure: Idiots Schedule, District 36, Kent County, Delaware

Idiots Schedule5V.jpg

Dependents Schedule

The Deaf-Mutes and Blind schedules are virtually identical. Both ask for the supposed cause, age of onset, whether the person was self-supporting, the name of institutions attended, length of time in that institution, and year discharged.

Figure: Deaf-Mutes Schedule, District 24, Fulton County, Ohio


Figure: Blind Schedule, District 24, Fulton County, Ohio



MyHeritage Cybersecurity Incident

Accessed: June 6, 2018, My Heritage Blog

MyHeritage Statement About a Cybersecurity Incident

Today, June 4, 2018 at approximately 1pm EST, MyHeritage’s Chief Information Security Officer received a message from a security researcher that he had found a file named myheritage containing email addresses and hashed passwords, on a private server outside of MyHeritage. Our Information Security Team received the file from the security researcher, reviewed it, and confirmed that its contents originated from MyHeritage and included all the email addresses of users who signed up to MyHeritage up to October 26, 2017, and their hashed passwords.

Immediately upon receipt of the file, MyHeritage’s Information Security Team analyzed the file and began an investigation to determine how its contents were obtained and to identify any potential exploitation of the MyHeritage system. We determined that the file was legitimate and included the email addresses and hashed passwords of 92,283,889 users who had signed up to MyHeritage up to and including Oct 26, 2017 which is the date of the breach. MyHeritage does not store user passwords, but rather a one-way hash of each password, in which the hash key differs for each customer. This means that anyone gaining access to the hashed passwords does not have the actual passwords.

The security researcher reported that no other data related to MyHeritage was found on the private server. There has been no evidence that the data in the file was ever used by the perpetrators. Since Oct 26, 2017 (the date of the breach) and the present we have not seen any activity indicating that any MyHeritage accounts had been compromised.

We believe the intrusion is limited to the user email addresses. We have no reason to believe that any other MyHeritage systems were compromised. As an example, credit card information is not stored on MyHeritage to begin with, but only on trusted third-party billing providers (e.g. BlueSnap, PayPal) utilized by MyHeritage. Other types of sensitive data such as family trees and DNA data are stored by MyHeritage on segregated systems, separate from those that store the email addresses, and they include added layers of security. We have no reason to believe those systems have been compromised.

Steps We’ve Taken

Immediately upon learning about the incident, we set up an Information Security Incident Response Team to investigate the incident. We are also taking immediate steps to engage a leading, independent cybersecurity firm to conduct comprehensive forensic reviews to determine the scope of the intrusion; and to conduct an assessment and provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to help prevent such an incident from occurring in the future.

We are taking steps to inform relevant authorities including as per GDPR.

We will be expediting our work on the upcoming two-factor authentication feature that we will make available to all MyHeritage users soon. This will allow users interested in taking advantage of it, to authenticate themselves using a mobile device in addition to a password, which will further harden their MyHeritage accounts against illegitimate access.

We set up a 24/7 security customer support team to assist customers who have concerns or questions about the incident.

What Our Users Should Do

MyHeritage users who have questions or concerns about this incident can contact our security customer support team via email on or by phone via the toll-free number (USA) +1 888 672 2875, available 24/7.

For all registered users of MyHeritage, we recommend that for maximum safety, they change their password on MyHeritage. The procedure for doing this is described in the MyHeritage FAQ article. Once MyHeritage releases the upcoming two-factor-authentication feature, we recommend to all our users to take advantage of it.

For now, there are no other actions that MyHeritage users need to take as a result of this incident. However, we always recommend that you take the time to evaluate your security practices. Please, avoid using the same password for multiple services or websites. It’s good practice to use stronger passwords and to change them often.

Going Forward

As always, your privacy and the security of your data are our highest priority. We continually assess our procedures and policies and seek new ways to improve our approach to security. We understand the importance of our role as custodians of your information and work every day to earn your trust.

Thank you for your understanding.


Omer Deutsch
Chief Information Security Officer, MyHeritage

Wake County, North Carolina old Colored Marriage Records

Genealogy Tools: Finding Ancestors

This is an acknowledgment of slaves who were married or given permission to marry. After the Civil War, they were required to register in their localities. Each state treated this differently in the records.

A perfect conversation to have with other family genealogist. Do you have a question on your own research?

Nick Sheedy 4:09pm May 29

I couldn’t fully examine at the image you shared on my phone, and just had a chance to look at it on my desktop … this document does indicate the couple married in 1851 and were “slaves – emancipated”.

This did not quite make sense to me because they are recorded in a “colored” marriage record book which would not have been kept until after the Civil War. So I thumbed through this book and I see a number of entries in the “colored” marriage books under the “name and title of the person performing the marriage” column that just read “emancipated slaves” — the dates for all of them pre-date the Emancipation, some as early as the 1820s. This tells me that these entries were for former slaves (freed after the Civil War) who were recording the fact that they had married while in slavery. It is not common you get the date of their pre-Emancipation marriage in these records, so that is cool!

The page you shared is from the female colored marriage book (digital image I looked at the male colored marriage book (FHL Film 236325 covers R-Z). Because of the odd way of indexing, you have to look at the first page of the T surnames to know on which page a surname is recorded (digital image — it indicates surnames starting with To… start on Page 19 (digital image, but I do not see any Todds on pp. 19-23. This is strange because we have that entry in the female colored book, so we would expect to find the groom’s entry here. So the entries may be mixed up, and you’ll have to hunt around to find the entry — if it is there.

I just searched Wake Co., NC Marriage Bonds and found only one marriage bond for a groom named George Todd , but he married in 1800 or 1806 (FHL 296870, digital images here:

But if former slaves were recording their pre-Emancipation marriage, they would not have obtained a license or recorded a bond, so that’s moot.

There is another FHL Film for “Negro Cohabitations, 1866” (FHL Film 2447783), but it has not been digitized yet. That would be the record group where former slaves would have registered their pre-Emancipation marriages. But from the entries in the colored marriage books, it is obvious that the county clerk just started recording them in those records as well.

Nick Sheedy
Nick Sheedy 4:16pm May 29
Correct, this is a typed marriage register. At some point the county clerk (or in this case the register of deeds) probably created this book from older records. But they may have done it because the old book was falling apart, and then destroyed it. So this is all we are left with. If you look at the FHL holdings for Wake County, NC (familysearch catalog, it doesn’t look like an “original” marriage register was filmed, suggesting it no longer exists. There could be licenses or bonds in other record groups for these same marriages, but former slaves who were recording their pre-Emancipation marriages would not have obtained a license or recorded a bond.
Mary Todd Allen
Mary Todd Allen 6:36pm May 30
So helpful! Thank you.
Nick Sheedy
Nick Sheedy 7:28pm May 30
Mary Todd Allen it is very very rare for a full marriage date to be recorded, when it was long before the Emancipation. That is very very cool.
Mary Todd Allen
Mary Todd Allen 8:48pm May 30
Yes Nick! I actually cried I was so overwhelmed to see this. This entire branch of my family tree is a fairly recent discovery as my father didn’t help us to connect with our Todd family. I love these people like I was raised around them. They have a unique story to tell that is a part of my story i cherish every morsel I can find vim so grateful for this wonderful community of amateur professional genealogists.
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Original Post
Mary Todd Allen
Mary Todd Allen 5:54pm May 28

Please clarify my understanding of this document. George and Lucinda Todd were my 2x great grandparents. This one page Marriage registry lists their marriage date and under who performed the marriage it states “Slaves emancipated”. What do I make of this? What can I infer from the dates and that statement? Thanks in advance family!

Please clarify my understanding of this document. George and Lucinda Todd were my 2x great grandpa…

Where did your ancestors come from?

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